Frequently Asked Questions
This a new page which we have created to try to answer some of the questions that are often asked about meadows and grasslands. We will build it up gradually over time, so keep an eye on it for further updates!
Q. When is the best time to sow wild flower meadow seeds?
A. As the plants naturally scatter their seeds in Autumn this generally is the best time to sow. Some plant seeds like Yellow Rattle will require exposure to a period of low temperature and the seeds should be fully imbibed (wet). It is important to expose the soil surface by raking, or on a larger area by scarifying or harrowing. In general, the seeds should not be buried, but rather gently firmed in and sown thinly.
A key factor for success with any seed sowing is understanding the plants ideal ground conditions recognising that some like Ragged Robin thrive in very damp areas. Others prefer dry areas whilst others are more tolerant.
Some seeds can be sown in spring under glass in a peat free compost, thinned as plugs, then hardened off in the normal way before planting out.
Whichever way you chose, good quality and local meadow seed is the best choice as then you then know that it is natural to your area. Always worth checking with MMG if you are unsure. See website for details.
Q. What is aftermath grazing and is it necessary?
A. In a typical hay meadow annual cycle the hay is cut in mid-summer and the hay baled and removed. After a few weeks (depending largely on the weather) there should be sufficient re-growth of the sward to allow the field to be grazed; this is known as ‘aftermath grazing’. Typically the grazing is continued at least until the autumn but can, if there is sufficient grazing to support the number of grazing animals, be continued into winter. At some point the stock is removed, the hay field is ‘closed-up’ and the sward allowed to grow through spring and summer to provide the next hay crop.
Aftermath grazing ensures that coarse, rapidly growing grasses don’t become dominant at the expense of finer grasses and herbs. Grazing animals have other advantages – their trampling helps to ensure that seeds shed before or during hay making are in close contact with the soil, which improves germination success, and can create small bare patches that some species need for germination. The dung of grazing animals also makes nutrients more readily available to plants without increasing the overall quantity of nutrients in the system (unless the animals are fed concentrates). The dung also supports insects and other invertebrates which in turn provide food for birds and mammals.
However, not all hay meadows or lawns can be grazed – they may be too small, inadequately fenced or lacking infrastructure such as water supplies. In these instances mowing can provide a substitute for grazing, although some of the advantages of grazing will be lost. If possible mowing should be repeated at intervals through late summer and autumn, but not cutting too low – light trims are best, aiming for an average sward height of 10cm (4in.). Ideally the cut material is removed and can be composted off-site. Once the growth of the sward has slowed mowing can cease.
Q. How many animals should be used for aftermath grazing?
A. There is no definitive answer to this question as it will depend on the environmental conditions of the site (soil type, altitude, drainage etc.) and even on one site will vary from year to year due to fluctuations in weather. These factors affect vegetation growth and hence how much herbage is available for grazing animals.
Farmers normally develop expertise in judging how many animals can be supported by a particular field, expressed as a stocking rate i.e. number per unit area). They will adjust the number of animals to balance the available forage, and move the animals on as necessary. MMG members may not have the luxury of several fields that can be grazed in rotation. Conservation grazing practitioners adopt a different approach that might be more suited to MMG members’ meadow management: that is to specify a target sward height of, say, 5cm (2in.) as this takes account of the variation in herbage growth from year to year.
If the grazing animals are provided by a local farmer or grazier this stipulation for a target sward height should be made clear before the animals come on to the site. Be firm and make it clear that co-operation is expected and future grazing opportunities will depend on that co-operation. Make clear also the latest date by which the stock must be removed. You may wish to use a grazing agreement that both parties sign – MMG can provide an example but cannot accept any liability from its use.
Q. Which butterflies should we look out for in our local meadows?
A. The flowers of species-rich meadows represent an invaluable nectar source for adult butterflies and many species may be seen visiting flowers if the butterfly’s principal habitat or larval food-plants are nearby. In this category are some of the commoner species such as Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), Peacock (Aglais io), Small Tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae) and Comma (Polygonia c-album) which all utilise Stinging Nettle as the larval food plant, Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui) which has caterpillars that feed on various species of Thistle, and rarer species such as Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Boloria selene) and Dark Green Fritillary (Argynnis aglaja), which both need Violets as larval food-plants.
In addition to these nectaring species are those that breed in grasslands of various types, including some that breed in meadows. Most make use of grasses as larval food-plants, but plants of the pea and cabbage families, such as Lesser Bird’s-foot Trefoil and Cuckoo Flower respectively, are used by some species. The species most likely to be encountered in Shropshire meadows are shown in the table below; not all will be found in every meadow as some have preferences for damp or drier grasslands, some prefer short or long swards etc. (In the table WM = West Midlands).
Although there are many field guides to butterflies most of these consider all UK species or even all European species that can make identification more difficult. The table is based on an excellent local guide, Butterflies of the West Midlands; the full reference is given below. As well as good colour photographs of the adult butterflies the guide also has photographs of eggs and caterpillar (larva) and chrysalis (pupa) and includes distribution maps and examples of the best places to see particular species.
It would be useful to have records of butterflies in MMG members’ meadows and other grasslands as evidence to support our work – please send in your records to the secretary.
Duncan, I., Seal, P., Tilt, J., Wasley, R. & Williams, M. (eds.) 2016. Butterflies of the West Midlands. Pisces Publications, Newbury.